All mopeds up to 50 cc and 50 km/h
Limited Speed Motorcycle
Motorized two/three wheelers greater than 50 cc but no more than 125 cc.
All motorcycles on a learning basis MP included
All motorcycles on a probationary basis MP included, requires MCL license
All motorcycles, MP included, requires MCP license
All tractors and agricultural vehicles
Vehicles under 3500 kg Learning
All vehicles under 3500 kg on a learning basis with 8 seats or less, includes MP
Vehicles under 3500 kg Probationary
All vehicles under 3500 kg on a probationary basis with 8 seats or less, includes MP, requires CL license
Vehicles under 3500 kg
All vehicles under 3500 kg with 8 seats or less, includes MP, requires CP license, allows recreational trailers up to 3500 kg
Light goods vehicle Learning
All vehicles up to 7500 kg with 8 seats or less on a learning basis, requires CP license
Light goods vehicle Probationary
All vehicles up to 7500 kg with 8 seats of less on a probationary basis, includes C and MP, requires LGVL license
Light goods vehicle
All vehicles up to 7500 kg with 8 seats or less, includes C and MP, requires LGVP license
Heavy goods vehicle Learning
All vehicles over 7500 kg with 8 seats or less on a learning basis, includes LGV, C and MP, requires C license
Heavy Goods vehicle Probationary
All vehicles over 7500 kg with 8 seats of less on a probationary basis, includes C and MP, requires HGVL license
Heavy goods vehicle
All vehicles over 7500 kg with 8 seats or less, includes LGV, C and MP, requires HGVP license
Buses on a learning basis, includes C and MP, requires C license
Buses, includes C and MP, requires BL license
All trailers over 3500 kg, requires at least an LGVL license
Thursday, 17 March 2016
New road regulations
I've talked a little bit about a few new regulations for using roads, but it was a fragmented small collection. Now I really made a compilation that addresses everything I can think of. Note that pretty much none of these measures are going to change actual behavior on the roads. It might make people more receptive to things like roundabouts perhaps, but nothing really about how the road actually ends up functioning. For that, look at infrastructure and how that makes a difference here. I took inspiration from what I've found works in other countries, like the drink driving limit in Sweden, the moped regulations of the Netherlands, the Good Samaritan laws of Québec, and a few of my own ideas, like the non electric cars limited to 100 km/h one. Germans, Dutch and Swedish people are among the best educated drivers in the world (and the Dutch have quite successful training programs for children on how to ride a bicycle), but only one really has an excellent cycling rate. The Netherlands. Training will not however begin when you are a tween, as I found happens in the UK. Most drivers aren't malicious, they are ordinary people, no better or worse than any other driver. Only very few are actually in need of the force of law, and only those who are being reckless, taking far more risks than you can be expected to, or actually trying to cause a crash are going to be those in need of legal punishment beyond a fine for speeding or likewise. Sustainable Safety does include an education component, but we only have so much we can do before we will hit the limit of human capability.
All crash locations, type of crash (fender bender, T boner, sideswipe, etc), severity (property damage under $2000, no injury, no death, minor injury, didn’t require a hospital stay other than a medical exam, no serious infection, no loss of work time, no broken or unusable limbs and no serious organ damage, serious injury, death), number of casualties, weather and lighting conditions, the month, type of road user(s) involved, and cause of crash, if someone were found to be guilty (if anyone), with the ability to search for particular types of crashes, in English and French, with the ability to see on an overhead view of the roads and a streetview 360 degree image, shall be published to the internet, with the crash in question showing up within 21 days after the incident. It shall also be given to those who ask for it in person or by mail or by phone. This functions as an education tool and also as a way of letting ordinary people for no cost, understand just how safe or unsafe a road or junction is.
A car must be capable of operating at least of speeds up to 130 km/h with a fuel economy of, at worst, 8 l/100 km.
The standard non criminal drink drive limit is reduced to .02% for all drivers regardless of how long they’ve been driving, even with experience, with .05% being the criminal limit. The tetrahydrocannabinol limit is made 5 nanograms in one’s blood unless best research demonstrates some other limit is sufficient. If a tetrahydrocannabinol detector can be created that will give a result within 15 seconds, then a detector detecting alcohol and tetrahydrocannabinol is developed and replaces the alcolock.
A tax on fuel shall be charged, $0.50/L. .
Research to be conducted to determine whether green walk man signals and red non walking man with a countdown timer (counting in seconds to the green light from red and to the time when you may not remain in the crosswalk from walk) is better understood than the walk/don’t walk signals we use today. Whichever is understood and respected better shall be adopted.
Signalling rules: Signal at least 8 seconds before your intended movement if possible, left to go to the left, right to go to the right, nothing to go straight on, brake lights if you are slowing or stopping, through a roundabout, you don’t do anything on entry, once the exit just before the one you are about the take passes, you signal right at that point. This goes for bicycles and moped riders as well. Any obvious action by a pedestrian who is about the cross the road, being in the vicinity of the crossing, walking towards the crossing, holding out one’s arm, looking in the direction of the approaching traffic, or other cues that suggest they may be crossing, and if in doubt, assume they are crossing, legally indicates that they are intending to cross the road.
Blind pedestrians, or who apparently are likely to be blind (white cane, red cane, holding onto a dog with sunglasses on, being held by a person on their arm, etc), those who appear old and fraile, and those who have a mobility aid, like a cane, walker or wheelchair, when they are pedestrians, shall have legal priority, wherever they may walk or cross so long as they have given drivers a reasonable chance to stop.
Handsfree devices, actually any electronic device that takes attention away from the act of cycling, moped riding or driving is prohibited except when in an official capacity, as in a bus driver using a computerized control system, or a firefighter using a radio, or in an emergency (as in to call 911). Eating while driving is prohibited, drinking non mind altering fluids without a straw while driving is discouraged, may or may not be prohibited.
A three point securement system seatbelt is required for each seat, regardless of position in the vehicle in question.
Drivers are obligated to carry a fire extinguisher, a first aid kit containing bandages, sterilization methods, emergency telephone numbers, face mask, eye patches, surgical gloves, instant ice packs, scissors, tweezers and safety pins, basic pain medicines, insect bite/sting reliefs, a thermometer, plus a manual, 3 foldable warning triangles, jumper cables, a spare tyre, basic tools and a high visibility jacket, in the event of a problem with a vehicle.
Staying on the right lane of a road is obligatory unless overtaking. Cycling on a designated cycle lane or cycle path that is usable is also obligatory, unless from a cycle lane, making a left turn when making a hook turn is not possible by going into the leftmost lane.
Trucks over 3500 kg, buses and vehicles towing trailers will be limited to 100 km/h unless the speed limit for general purpose traffic is lower, in which case the lower limit applies.
Tractors are not permitted to go faster than 40 km/h and must have at least a class T license to operate.
Left signaling buses attempting to re-enter the flow of traffic have priority over vehicles behind them, except for other buses.
A limiter on each kind of car is on each vehicle registered or those that spend more than 60 days out of the year in Alberta for the maximum that vehicle can legally go on the fastest road it is allowed to use (trucks with a limiter for 100 km/h,cars for 130, mopeds for 50 km/h, etc).
Pedestrian friendly vehicle designs will be added. Handles would be in recessed compartments, objects that are not required on the bumper, for example hood ornaments, are not allowed, and other pedestrian friendly features are applied dependent upon the latest research.
Collapsible steering wheels are required in all motor vehicles that have a steering wheel.
A dead man’s switch is required in all motorized vehicles, checking every 20 seconds for alertness. If the button on the steering wheel is not held down as required, a loud buzz will sound, and encouragements to take a break will be used if the buzzing goes on for more than 7 seconds.
New cars may not have cupholders intended to be in the vicinity of the actual driver if drinking non alcoholic beverages while driving is also prohibited.
Automatic emergency braking systems are required in cars so as to slow or stop if a car is about to hit a car, and will warn in advance if a crash is imminent unless action is taken immediately.
Electronic steering control and antilock braking systems are required.
Cars must protect lives and prevent injury in rollover crash tests, as well as being hit from behind at 120 km/h.
Trucks must have a undertrailer bar that will protect vehicles behind, even in a crash of 105 km/h. They must also have skirt guards to prevent anything from getting underneath the trailer.
A tailgating detector applying the recommended distance between vehicles formula will be a part of every vehicle, required in all vehicles sold after the date of enactment and within 3 years of all other vehicles. A radar sensor detects any vehicle or object in front of your vehicle within the safety zone that is determined by scanning the area which can be expected to be travelled within 2 seconds up to 55 km/h, within 3 seconds up to 100 km/h, and within 4 seconds above 100 km/h and is within the lane of the vehicle being used by that vehicle. If objects, IE other vehicles, come within that space, than a warning will be given to the driver.
Mopeds are required to use cycleways that are indicated with a bicycle on a green circle sign or a cycle lane sign, but are limited to 30 km/h in urban areas and 50 in rural areas. A moped is defined by a motorized 2-3 wheeled vehicle that has an engine size of 50 cc or less with a limiter for 50 km/h. Mopeds are also legally required to be electric models, heritage mopeds are grandfathered, but no more may be sold. Mopeds do not have helmet obligations, but motorcyclists do.
Limited speed motorcycles, with engine sizes up to 125 cc and a limiter for up to 100 km/h, are a new category that may be obtained at the age of 16. They are allowed on motorways and expressways, but must remain on the right side of the road to permit overtaking, but are allowed to be on the left hand side of their lane in order to prevent blind spot crashes.
Mopeds, motorcyclists and cyclists are allowed to lane split, if the speed of traffic is 60 km/h or less. They may also ride on the shoulder if they wish. They must not lane split near an intersection or pedestrian or cycleway crossing.
Limited speed motorcycles and cyclists are required to keep to the right side of the road unless they are going the speed of the traffic or legal speed limit, whichever is lower, Riding two abreast is permitted for all two and three wheelers, engine or not.
Electric bicycles will be considered legally the same as bicycles except that they may not have an motor power greater than 500 watts, there must be a limiter for 30 km/h, and that they must require at least some pedalling in order for the motor to begin assisting. Any electric bicycle that does not meet these requirements is a moped, and must be licensed and registered as such. Segways and similar devices will be included in the electric bicycle category.
The helmet law is repealed province wide and municipalities are prohibited from introducing bylaws to require or effectively require it for anyone. This applies to kick scooters and skateboards as well.
Headlights are required to be on at all times. Bicycles will be required to have a rim reflector, or a reflector in the spokes for existing bicycles, a rear red reflector, a front and back reflector in the pedals, and a white or yellow front reflector on the front at all times and are required to have non flashing lights, one white on the front, one red on the back, running on dynamo power, at night or other low visibility conditions. New bicycles are required to be sold with these, and also the lights are required to have a standlight system on both lights.
Motor vehicles that are not transit buses (except for the driver) will be required to have a seat belt interlock, that stops the vehicle from moving if mass is detected on a seat and the seatbelt is not clicked in at speeds over 15 km/h.
Taxis are required to have at least one child seat that meets current regulations, and regardless of age, all passengers (and the driver) must use seat belts, full accessibility with an extendable ramp, high contrast handles, a seat that can rotate out if required and seatbelts.
The motorway and the expressway are new classifications for roads in the province, the former indicated by a green sign with a white divided highway with a bridge over it, the latter indicated with a green sign and a white car facing forwards on it. The legal minimum speed limit is 60 km/h, vehicles that are incapable of going at least 60 km/h or are not legally allowed to by law are prohibited, bicycles, agricultural vehicles, mopeds, people with livestock and pedestrians are included in a non exhaustive list. The signs look like this, motorway on left, expressway on right.
Lane departure sensors will be required in all new vehicles (this includes being closer than 20 cm from the edge of the road as well), giving an audible warning alert.
New mobile phones will be required to have a program that prevents their use at speeds over 10 km/h unless the button to call 911 from the unlock screen is pressed, if someone texts them during this time a reply will indicate that the intended recipient is behind the wheel.
A tiredness detection system will be researched, the most effective method of preventing drivers from continuing to drive, preventing the starter from working if already parked if possible, and in all other cases of tiredness, a warning will be given that you are likely too tired. Truck drivers and commercial van drivers are prohibited from driving more than 8 hours straight with no break of at least 7 hours, no exceptions.
Speed limits are modified to fit Vision 0 and Sustainable Safety guidelines. The new default speed limits are in this picture:
Other speed limits include 30 km/h zones on urban access roads, 40 km/h zones on rural access roads, 120, 100, 90 and 80 in some cases for metropolitan freeways, and 70 km/h for urban through roads.
All new vehicles must be hybrids or electrically powered.
Annual inspections for all motorized vehicles, electric bicycles limited to 30 km/h, excepted, are required.
The fine system and demerit system and license suspension/revocation system will work as follows.
The fines will be based on income and severity of the offense. For class 1 offenses, the percentage of income should be about .5% of income, with a minimum of 150 dollars, along with 2 demerits. For class 2 offenses, it should be 1.5%, minimum of 375 dollars, and 3 demerits. For class 3 offences, this rises to 4% of income, minimum of 750 dollars in fines, up to 6 hours of community service, 5 demerits, with class 4 offenses having a fine of 8.5% of income, minimum of 1000 dollars in fines, up to 12 hours of community service and if taken to court, up to 14 days in provincial jail, 6 demerits, for class 5 offenses, 10% of income, minimum 1250 dollars in fines, license suspension possible, 96 hours of community service, up to 6 weeks jail. The penalty for driving too fast, even just 5 km/h over, will be much higher than going 5 km/h over the limit on a motorway for example, given how dangerous it is for even just a 5 km/h difference there is on 30 km/h roads. Driving 20 km/h or faster on a road with a speed limit less than 80 km/h, 30 km/h or more if the limit is 80 km/h or more, automatically entails a suspension.
For demerit points, the limit anyone can get is 8, GDL has 5. Alcohol offences automatically get a suspension and automatically gets a class 4 penalty, and also automatically get an alcolock that takes samples midway through the trip at random intervals installed, distracted driving also, 24 hours at least.
Those who are being reckless, commits an intentional or reckless offence against a vulnerable road user, and those who are being careless about safety, plus those who intentionally cause crash(es) will automatically be prohibited from driving for at least 5 years, can be for life if court ordered. Road rage offenses requires at least a 24 hour suspension and a fine with demerits.
Riders of motorized two or three wheeled non enclosed vehicles with a maximum governor speed setting of over 50 km/h or an engine size over 50 cc shall wear an approved motorcycle helmet.
To obtain a non probationary license, you will have had to complete at least 50 hours of certified and recorded driving hours and have attended and passed a safe driving education course. You also have to pass a first aid course certified by the Canadian Red Cross.
Learning drivers must have had their license for at least 1 year before upgrading to probationary license for class C and MC, 2 years for all other classes. They are required to log at least 50 hours of driving time, at least 5 of which must be recorded with a registered driving trainer, and at least 10 hours must be at night, and 3 hours in rainy or foggy weather and 5 hours in the snow or ice, and 5 hours in the hours of 7:30 and 8:30 AM and/or 3:30 PM and 6:00 PM on weekdays, IE during congested periods.
Probationary drivers are not allowed to have non family members who are 16 or older in their vehicle without someone at least 25 years of age who has their non probationary license in the passenger seat after 10:30 PM and before 5:30 AM. Trailers may not be towed either, unless a non probationary driver accompanies the probationary driver (allowed to exit the vehicle for the purpose of reversing guidance). They must also not accompany a learning driver. You must also have a BAC of 0%. You must be a probationary driver for at least 2 years before getting your non probationary license.
To get a class C license from a Class CP, you must have undergone a hazard perception test, where you must press a button when you, watching pre recorded videos of a hazardous situation, determine that there is a hazard on the road. This test is done on a computer at the registry office, and there are 20 situations to watch, with a quick response time rate of at least 85%.
Learner licenses shall have red L plates attached to their vehicle on the front and back. Probationary drivers are required to have green plates (displaying either an N or a P, subject to further research to determine which is more effective) on the front and back of their vehicle. They will be 10 cm by 15 cm (w*l) plates. You receive a set of these when you pass the relevant exams.
All cars must have front and side airbags.
Drivers will each time they renew their license will be required to go on another practice test, a written exam, pass another eye exam and will need to be educated about new things and rules on the roads as time goes on. And you will be renewing your license once every 4 years, once every 3 years for those with licenses over class C.
Registration of your car each year requires the undergoing of an emissions test.
The GDL program will extend until the age of 25. As in, you must be at least 25 to get a non probationary license for anything more than a moped. To get a learning license you will need to be at least 15, except for moped riders who may get one at 14. To get a learner’s license, you will be required to demonstrate basic rules like right of way, intersection control, overtaking and turns, signaling included, on a bicycle (adapted bicycles allowed for those incapable of balancing on a two wheeler). To get a non probationary license you must be indicating how to use warning triangles, how to use a fire extinguisher (to save on costs, water will be the fluid), how to deal with a collision of differing severities (actually pretending that a collision happened, and you are talking with the other person involved in a crash). You will need to show some basic maintenance procedures on your car, like wiper fluid, dipstick check, and how to open the front hood correctly.
Parking on a road unless otherwise signed (areas with speed limits under 50 km/h excepted) will not be allowed. To allow parking on such a road, the parking area will need to be in the form of a clearly indicated and designed bay visually distinct from the rest of the roadway.
Driving with winter tyres or all season tyres of the correct standard will be required of all vehicles, provincially registered or not, within the province, and you must get them changed within 100 km of entering the province.
Buses, regardless of size (9 metre mini, 12 metre standard, 18 metre articulated, 12 metre double decker) and otherwise, used as public transportation or intercity coaches, will be required to have an automatic stop announcement system in text and audio, an audio system informing visually impaired people which route they are and to which destination they are going, and to have security cameras.
To ensure that demand for fuel does not rise very much when oil prices go well down the normal market range, if the normal market cannot ensure a price at least 1 dollar and 20 cents per litre, a tax, with the revenue split 75% to the provincial transportation department, 25% to the municipal transportation departments, will be used to get the price to at least $1.20/L.
Those who ride a bicycle, walk or take public transport will get 15 cents tax break per kilometre traveled, and this included students aged 15 and up. Those who carpool up to 4 people per vehicle will get 5 cents/kilometre, and those who have more passengers than that get 10 cents/kilometre. A low income transit pass will be required of all public transport, rail included, agencies. If you buy a bicycle and use it for utilitarian purposes that replaces at least a quarter of your car journeys, than you will get a 1/3 price rebate on the price of that bicycle (900 dollar bicycle nets you a 300 dollar refund on your taxes if you keep the receipt).
New cars are restricted to a maximum width of 1.75 metres, a maximum height of 1.7 metres and 5 metres in length, mirrors included, and new mopeds are restricted to 75 cm on their widest part, and motorcycles have at least 85 cm on their handlebars/widest part, maximum of 1 metre. Motorcycles are included in the requirement that they be electric models. Vans and other vehicles under 3.5 t that are not sedans, stationwagons, sports cars nor box style vans are restricted to 190 cm in width, 6 metres of length and 2.2 metres of height. Box vans with a restricted (full) mass of 3.5 t may be 200 centimetres wide, 9 metres long and 3.2 metres in height. Mirrors included in all dimensions.
It is an offense to give alcohol to someone you know is very likely to be driving while the alcohol is affecting the mind. The same goes for other drugs that impair one’s ability to drive. Those who stop someone intoxicated or otherwise under the influence of drugs or alcohol is allowed to interfere with them driving, using basic force if needed. When someone goes to a bar or establishment where these sorts of intoxicants are consumed, there must be a way for them to get home safely, and it must be announced before one consumes any intoxicants.
Given that speed limits apply equally everywhere, there will be no warnings about whether an automatic speed camera system is in effect unless research finds that people consistently stay within the limit if there are signs. Same logic with red lights. No warnings will be given about a particular location where speed limit or red light cameras are in effect. It is still possible to challenge violations. Other automatic traffic law enforcement cameras are under the same reasoning. These cameras will also capture the driver of the vehicle and send them a personalized fine, whereas the owner was the only one who could be liable for the fine, and only a fine was able to be issued. Now demerits, suspensions, fines, arrests, etc can be made depending on the offences in question.
Trucks (and buses and similar vehicles) over 3500 kilograms or longer than 6 metres, or both, are required to have extra mirrors and a camera so that the driver will see what is behind and to the blind spot sides of their vehicles. Skirt guards and wheel guards are required so that it is harder to drag a pedestrian, cyclist, moped rider or motorcyclist and even car under the truck, and guards on the back of the truck are required so that a rear end collision is less damaging.
A strict liability law is to be enacted. If a motorized user hits a vulnerable road user (mopeds included in vulnerable road users), then the driver’s insurer, or the driver if there is no insurance, is required to pay for the cost of medical bills, repairs to any items of the vulnerable road user that was damaged and any other monetary damages required to compensate the victim of the crash, unless the vulnerable road user made a mistake that contributed. If that is the case, then at least 50% of the costs will be shared by the driver’s insurer, the other part by the vulnerable road user’s insurer or the vulnerable road user themself if no insurer on their part. This 50% share can be increased up to 100% by a judge or justice if he/she feels like that is required by the particular case. If the vulnerable road user was being reckless, then the driver’s insurer is not liable, unless the victim was a child, in which case the parent’s pay. The burden of proof is on the driver’s insurer, or driver is there is a lack of an insurer.
All collisions must be reported to the police, they must at least log the crash even if there were no injuries and no major damage.
Jaywalking may not be made illegal on undivided 4 lane or less roads with speed limits of 50 km/h or less. Crossing against the red man signal is not illegal in and of itself, only a failure to give way to motor traffic can be.
To legally give way means that you slowed or stopped as the individual situation requires it to allow those with legal priority to not have to change speed or course to avoid a collision.
In the event that the traffic lights are not operational or are flashing amber for whatever reason, unless an authorized human traffic controller takes it’s place, if there are no signs, than yielding to the right is required. If there are signs, than if you see the priority road sign in your direction, than you have legal priority over the side street. If you see a yield sign, then you must give way to the road without yield signs facing them. If you see a stop sign, you must fully stop to give the other road the right of way.
Pedestrian non priority crossings (crossings where pedestrians do not have priority) are now allowed, and they are indicated with a pair of broken white lines parallel with each other flanking the crossing and a pedestrian warning sign (diamond, not rectangular) or no sign. They may only be built where pedestrians would not have much delay by waiting for a gap in traffic.
Those with probationary licenses are unable to get a high powered vehicle until they get a non probationary license.
There will be a 15% sales tax applying to all products directly related to motor vehicles (cars themselves, wiper fluid, car repairs, etc). This does not apply to the government when it buys these sorts of products.
No new (manufactured or imported or newly registered) light trucks are allowed exceed 1500 kg of mass and no new cars and similar vehicles are allowed to exceed 1250 kg, and there is a tax reduction if the vehicle mass is 1000 kg or less. If you are over 1000 kg, it incurs an additional 65 dollar tax for both types of vehicles per year.
A motor vehicle tax on vehicles that are not electrically powered or not used by a person with mobility disabilities will be instituted. Based on the taxes the UK has for motor vehicles maximum rate. A similar tax on size will be added.
Radar detectors are prohibited, as are navigation systems which inform of radar detection points.
For the purpose of parking regulations, mopeds are considered bicycles.
A Good Samaritan Law is to be enacted. For a person trained in first aid to come and assist a person shall not be prosecuted nor liable to lawsuits if they acted in good faith, and one is not liable for offenses if in good faith they stop to assist a person in need on the roadside. In fact, it is required unless the person is already receiving assistance.
Rewards given to road users can help give them an added bonus for remaining at fault crash free. For every 4 months that one remains at fault crash free, they get the right to have 1 day off more per trimester, up to 3 per year. If you go a whole year remaining at fault crash free, than you get 1 more week off from work. You can substitute this with the monetary reward in the next sentence. If you are a student or are otherwise not employed, then you get a bonus of 25 dollars per trimester up to the age of 14, 40 dollars per trimester after the age of 14 if you remain at fault crash free.
The automatic cameras that photograph offenses also will at random intervals, select a driver or road user, and then each month, some of the money and some of the people selected by the automatic cameras, let’s say 25 people per month, will each get a certain sum of the money raised by the automatic cameras. Perhaps .5% of the revenue each month, non taxable, for a total of 12.5% of the money going to this lottery system. Those who have received a conviction for a driving offense within the last 5 years are not allowed to participate.
Traffic education programs in schools would be provided. Teaching children between 4 and 12 how to interact with the road as a pedestrian and also as a cyclist, the meaning of red lights, how to determine safe gaps in the traffic, the meaning of signage, how to make a lane change as a cyclist, and other road rules and guidance. Those in Grades 8, 9 and 10 can get a course educating one on how to be a safe learning driver. Beginning in high school, you also would get education on how to be a safe learning driver if you have not yet passed the basic road test, and you can choose an option in high school, teaching the driver how to be a safe probationary driver, and upon passing, you could be able to get your full license at the age of 18 or perhaps some other determined age at least 18 that is less than 25 as an incentive for taking (and passing) the course. You also would be able to get official first aid training, which can be used to obtain the non probationary license class 5.
Cars would be developed to the standard that they can hit a thrie beam barrier up to 140 km/h and be able to survive without serious injury at a 25 degree angle. They must be able to withstand a rear end crash and sideswipe up to 105 km/h without serious injury. They must be able to survive a head on crash at least up to 70 km/h without serious injury. They must be able to withstand a T bone crash up to at least 55 km/h without serious injury. They must be able to ensure high survivability rate of pedestrians and cyclists in a front ender or rear ender up to 35 km/h.
Police will have a dashcam, recording time, audio, speed and coordinates, along with a playback device in the trunk, so that disputes are easily proven and reviewed. This applies to police on motorcycles as well, and includes undercover police.